Learn about the many beneficial ingredients in MBK Clinical Skincare Solutions.
Acai (Euterpe Oleracea) - Fruit native to Central/South America, powerful antioxidant, rich in phytosterols, anthocyanins, essential fatty acids, and vitamins.
Acti White - Is a new skin lightener demonstrating the capacity to decrease melanogenesis which is responsible for the coloration of the human skin. Tyrosinase inhibiting activity results in a visible reduction in skin pigmentation.
Adifyline® - Is a hexapeptide that increases local volume improving facial appearance and providing a curvy silhouette, by promoting PGC-1a expression and lipid accumulation in the adipose tissue.
Allantoin - Is a healing, moisturizing, soothing and anti-irritating, keratolytic and non-toxic agent. It is a valuable cell-proliferating-healing agent that stimulates healthy tissue formation offers pronounced keratolytic and skin softening benefits and protects from UV damage.
Aloe Vera (Aloe Barbadensis) - Healing, moisturizing, and anti-inflammatory properties. Speeds up skin cell reproduction by as much as eight times and penetrates the epidermis four times faster than water.
Apple Stem Cells (Malus Domestica Fruit Cell Culture) - Phospholipid apple stem cells, stimulate and protect human stem cells while reducing wrinkle depth and promoting regeneration.
Arnica Extract (Arnica Montana) - Offers anti-inflammatory and stimulating activity. Normalizes superficial microcirculation, activates the reabsorption of cutaneous blood effusion (bruises). Effective against dark circles, improves capillary tissue quality (regeneration of the keratin fiber, regulation of the sebaceous function).
Arginine(L) - Essential amino acid that help to generate collagen.
Argireline (Acetyl Hexapeptide-8) - A powerful anti-wrinkle hexapeptide with a Botulinum toxin-inspired activity.
Ascorbic Acid (Water Soluble Vitamin C) - Is a powerful antioxidant, strengthens collagen, assists in brightening, provides anti-wrinkle effects, smoothes skin texture, heals wounds, and prevents scarring.
Avocado Oil (Persea Gratissima) - Rich oil that readily penetrates skin due to presence of Palmitoleic acid, well suited for dry skin formulations, moisturizing, antioxidant, healing. Loaded with vitamins A, B1, B2, B5, Vitamin D, E, minerals, protein, lecithin and fatty acids, said to have healing and regenerating qualities.
Azelaic Acid - Inhibits tyrosinase activity to reduce pigmentation spotting, anti-bacterial, anti-free radical.
Bearberry (Alpha Arbutin) - Promotes skin lightening, blocks epidermal melanin biosynthesis by inhibiting tyrosinase. Is also antibacterial and serves as an antioxidant.
Beta Carotene - A powerful anti-oxidant found in carrots, fruits and green leafy vegetables. It helps maintain smooth, soft disease-free skin protects against air pollutants.
Bilberry (Vaccinium Myrtillus) - Antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, high levels of fatty acids, regenerating and nourishing properties.
Biophytex - Anti-inflammatory properties. After 4 weeks of treatment dark circles were reduced by over 64%.
Bioflavonoids - Citrus bioflavonoids are believed to have anti-viral, anti-inflammatory, and anti-allergy properties. They have been shown to help fight infection, free radical damage, viruses and the common cold.
Bisabolol - Enhances penetration and efficacy of Retinol. It accelerates healing and is an anti-irritant.
BioSulphur - Offers three benefits to breakout prone skin: antibacterial, anti-inflammatory and sebum regulating.
Bladderwrack Extract - Rich in calcium, magnesium, potassium, sodium, sulfur, silicon and iron and high in some B-complex vitamins, carotene and zeaxanthin, improves elasticity.
Blueberry (Vaccinium Angustifolium) - Potent antioxidant, rich in vitamin C and E, anthocyanins.
Borage Oil (Borago Officinalis) - Is a naturally occurring plant oil that helps inflammatory problems like skin inflammation, eczema, skin dryness, cutaneous and inflammatory skin disorder. Application of this oil helps in reducing itching and skin lesions.Boswellia Serrata Extract (Boswellia Serrata) - Anti-inflammatory, helps reduce sun damage, fine lines, and acne.
Bromelain - Proteolytic enzyme isolated from pineapple stem, hydrolyses proteins into peptides and amino acids.
Bromelain & Papain - Protein digesting enzymes found in pineapple and papaya; effective in the gentle removal of damaged keratin from the top layers of the epidermis.
Calamine - Is traditionally used to relieve itching and soothe minor skin irritations. It offers a counter-irritant effect following application as it evaporates producing a cooling effect.
Calendula (Calendula Officinalis) - Soothes and calms skin irritation, anti-inflammatory, astringent, anti-fungal, and antiseptic properties, rich in flavonoids and saponins that promote healing and repair.
Caprylic/Capric Triglyceride - Derived from coconut oil and glycerin, it has emollient and skin-repairing properties, fatty acids help to moisturize and replenish skin, is non-sensitizing, has anti-inflammatory properties. Helps enhance the delivery of vitamins, pigments, and other active ingredients in formula.
Cariciline® SB - Natural source of Vitamin A. It improves hydration by 90% 1 hour following application.
Cherry (Prunus Avium) - Contain high levels of vitamin C and other antioxidants which fight free radicals, thus preventing signs of ageing like fine lines, wrinkles and spots. They also contain a plant pigment called anthocyanidin which prevents wrinkles by destroying the harmful enzymes that make your skin old and wrinkled.
Citrus Bioflavonoids - Are essential for the effective utilization of Vitamin C by the body. Bioflavonoids slow down the normal breakdown of Vitamin C in the body allowing it to be more effective. There is a mutual relationship between Vitamin C and citrus bioflavonoids as they work to mutually enhance the action of each other.
Comfrey Extract (Symphytum Officinale) - Is potent skin-healing agent particularly beneficial for sensitive skin. It aids wound repair, accelerates skin healing, and possesses anti-inflammatory activity.
Corum Peptide 8813TM - Is a lipopeptide that stimulates collagen and glycosaminoglycan synthesis and strengthens connective tissue.
Cranberry (Vaccinium Macrocarpon) - Potent antioxidant proanthocyanidins, anti-microbial, nourishing. Natural enzymatic exfoliant as well.
Cucumber Seed Oil (Cucumber Sativus) - Possesses a remarkable amount of phytosterols, vitamin B and C, essential fatty acides and minerals which help skin strengthen its lipid barrier, restoring proper moisture balance, smoothing the skin’s surface and improving skin elasticity.
Cylasphere Retinol - Advanced bio-drug delivery system with increased biocompatibility. Non cytotoxic, non-irritating and hypoallergic.
Daisy Blossom Extract - Is one of the most sought after natural skin lighteners as it addresses the three main pathways that lead to dark spots and uneven skin tone as a result of sun damage. Bellis Perennis (Daisy) Blossom Extract influences biochemical pathways involved in melanin synthesis by: inhibition of tyrosinase, transcriptional control of tyrosinase expression, reduction of the pro-melanogenic mediators endothelin and α MSH (melanin-stimulating hormone) as well as reduction of melanosome transfer to keratinocytes.
Defensil® Plus - Is a highly effective treatment that alleviates stressed, sensitive and irritable skin. The special properties of Blackcurrant Seed oil and Balloon Vine extract in combination with Sunflower OilConcentrate effectively reduce inflammatory processes and replenish the damaged skin barrier.
Delisens Solution - Is an innovative hexapeptide that relieves itching while helping sensitive skin to recover its physiological tolerance threshold.
Dog Rose (Rosa Canina) - High levels of essential fatty acids, natural retinoic acid content to aid in skin rejuvenation, hydrating, moisturizing, nourishing, protective against photo damage.
Ferulic Acid - Plant phenol antioxidant, provides rigidity to plant cell walls, reduces oxidative stress, and reduces damage caused by UV radiation and damage to DNA.Fision Instant LiftTM - Boosts elasticity, firmness and radiance.
Gamma Amino Butyric Acid - GABA is an amino acid that is an inhibitory neurotransmitter that decreases or inhibits nerve and muscle function. Naturally produced in our bodies, used for its tyrosinase inhibitory properties.
Gardenia Stem Cells (Jasminoides Meristem Cell Culture) - Gardenia Jasminoides Stems strongly inhibit collagenase by limiting collagen degradation and preventing skin damage and firmness loss.
German Chamomile (Chamomilla Recutita / Matricaria) - Anti-bacterial, soothing, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant.
Glycerin - Moisturizes and lubricates the skin, promotes skin softness and smoothness, acts as a natural preserving agent.
Glycine - Amino acid that helps remove toxic substances and provide a release of growth hormones; promotes cell volumizing through hydration & participates in several important reactions in the body.
Glycolic Acid - Alpha Hydroxy Acid (AHA), used as an exfoliator to remove dead skin cells, smoothes skin texture, reduces signs of wrinkles.
Gotu Kola (Centella Asiatica Stem Cells) - Boosts collagen production, improves elasticity reducing signs of fine lines and wrinkles, assists in wound healing to minimize scarring and anti-bacterial.
Grape Seed Extract & Oil (Vitis Vinifera) - Rich in polyphenols, protects the skin from free radicals and premature aging, increases intracellular Vitamin C levels, inhibits destruction of collagen, treats acne, and tightens the skin. The antioxidant power of grape seed extract fights the free radicals and protects the skin from damage.
Grape Skin (Vitis Vinifera) - Rich in polyphenol proanthocyanidins, protects the skin from free radicals and premature aging, increases intracellular vitamin C levels, inhibits destruction of collagen.
Green Tea Leaf Extract (Camellia Sinensis) - Rich in polyphenols such as EGCG that prevent free radical damage, reduces inflammation, inhibits destructive enzymes that break down healthy collagen fibers improving firmness and elasticity, also provides photo-protective benefits.
Green Tea Leaf Extract(Camellia Oleifera) - Antioxidant that helps fight free radical damage and anti-inflammatory properties.
HaloxylTM - Increases growth of keratinocytes. Reduces discoloration of under-eye dark circles.
Hyaluronic Acid(L) - Natural moisturizing factor, draws water to the cells, plumps, lubricates and moisturizes the skin; prevents trans-epidermal water loss.
Hydrolyzed DNA - Deeply hydrating, nourishing, smoothing.
Hydrolyzed RNA - Deeply hydrating, increases moisture levels, strengthens and restores.
Jojoba Oil (Buxus Chinensis) - Closely resembling natural sebum within our skin it balances skin’s natural oil. Calms inflammation with naturally present myristic acid and has antioxidant properties.
Jojoba Seed Oil(Simmondsia Chinensis) - Moisturizes and reconditions the skin; balances oil production and provides barrier protection.
Juvinity™ - Reduces oxidative stress (production of intracellular peroxides reduced by 85%) and limits telomere (DNA) shortening to ensure optimal replication as a young cell. It rebalances the mitochondrial activity, promotes ATP synthesis (+76%) and protects the cytoskeleton. The extracellular matrix metabolism is then reactivated: +483% of collagen synthesis, +32% of decorin synthesis and +33% of hyaluronic acid synthesis.
Kakadu Plum Extract (Terminalia Ferdinandiana) - Small fruit native to Australia, one of richest sources of natural vitamin C, powerful antioxidant. The Kakadu contains phytochemicals gallic and ellagic acids. Gallic acid has antibacterial, antiviral and antifungal activities and also shows anti-inflammatory, anti-tumour, anti-mutagenic and anti- bronchodilatory activities.Kojic Acid - Inhibits melanin production by inhibiting tyrosinase, provides gradual and continual skin lightening to relieve skin discolorations.
Lactic Acid - An Alpha Hydroxy Acid (AHA) that hydrates and exfoliates, reducing wrinkles and pigmentation discolorations.
Lavender Oil (Lavandula Angustifolia) - Astringent, natural soothing properties, healing, normalizes oil production, reduces skin inflammation, cleansing.
Lecithin - Derived from soybeans, protein source containing phospholipids, emulsifier, emollient, moisturizing.
Licorice Root Extract (Glycyrrhiza Glabra) - Contains glycyrrhetic acid and flavinoids that have a soothing, regenerative and anti-oxidant properties. Licorice extract is thought to inhibit melanogenesis and is thus used as a skin whitening agent.
Liftiss - Hygroscopic benefits reduce moisture loss via evaporation and smooths expression wrinkles revitalizing and moisturizing skin.
Linefactor - Offers bio-mimetic protection of Fibroblast Growth Factor - 2 (FGF-2), producing a powerful activation of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) and collagen synthesis. Linefactor is an amino acid-rich extract of hibiscus selected for its protective effect toward FGF-2 in a model of heat stress. Protection of FGF-2 can induce dermal regeneration by stimulating the production of collagen and GAGs improving the appearance of aging skin.Low molecular weight Hyaluronic Acid - Helps preserve suppleness, elasticity and tone.
Mandarin Orange Oil (Citrus Nobilis) - High in vitamin C and copper, antioxidant, astringent, toning.
Mandelic Acid - Derived from almonds, AHA, anti-bacterial, improvement in photoaged skin, acne, abnormal pigmentation, and skin texture.
MAP (Magnesium Ascorbyl Phosphate) - Offers inhibitory effects on melanogenesis, promotion of collagen synthesis, and prevention of lipid peroxidation. MAP is a phosphate ester and is easily hydrolyzed to ascorbic acid in the skin by enzymes (phosphatase).
Milk Thistle (Silybum Marianum) - Powerful antioxidant, inhibits photoaging, provides protection against UVB induced photodamage.
Mulberry Root Extract (Morus Alba) - Mulberry has been used for centuries in Chinese Medicine. Newer discoveries make it very useful in skin care, as it has been found to lighten age spots and uneven skin tone. Has been postulated to promote hair growth and have antioxidant and anti-septic properties.Multifruit® BSC - A concentrated blend of five botanical extracts: bilberry, sugar cane, sugar maple, orange, and lemon. These extracts contain several naturally occurring alpha hydroxy acids. Alpha hydroxy acids have been shown to promote smoother, younger looking skin by increasing the rate of cell renewal.
Neodermyl® - The “needle-free” collagen and elastin filler. Revitalizes aged fibroblasts and reactivates collagen I, III and elastin synthesis in a fast and sustainable way. Visible results in only two weeks: skin is firmer, more supple, and deep wrinkles disappear.
Niacin - Vitamin B3, vital for energy release in tissues and cells, essential for growth and maintenance of healthy skin, antioxidant.
Niacinamide - Amide form of Niacin, involved in cellular respiration, lipid synthesis, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, improves epidermal barrier function, inhibits skin pigmentation, smoothing of fine lines/wrinkles.
Olive Oil (Olea Europaea) - Rich in antioxidants as well as squalane and oleic acid, naturally heals and soothes the skin while allowing the skin cells to rejuvenate and repair.
Orange Peel, Oil & Extract - A very sweet citrus smell it is non-toxic, non-irritating, nonsensitizing and antiseptic in nature. Natural astringent and skin toner. Cleans pores and helps to remove acne spots and skin blemishes. High in antioxidants that fight free radicals, nourishing and protective, as it is high in flavonoids, and rich in Vitamin C. Promotes collagen production and aids in diminishing hyperpigmentation.
Organical Dew Drops - An aqueous blend of Jujube, Sea Kelp, Phyto Hyaluronic, Irish Moss and Nori Extract which help boost and retain natural moisture levels.wrinkles, leaving an elastic skin surface and long lasting hydration.
Organic Cocoa Butter (Theobroma Cacao) - Is an unrefined, yellow, natural cocoa butter. It is a rich emollient with excellent skin softening, conditioning, and lubricating properties.
Organic Helichrysum Extract - A free radical scavenger inhibits oxidases and ROS formation. It offers anti-microbial and purifying benefits.
Organic Mango Butter (Mangifera Indica) - Is a highly emollient, high oxidative regenerating ingredient.
Organic Shea Butter (Butyrospermum Parkii) - High content of hydrating and conditioning agents with fatty acid profile, moisturizes and retains elasticity, helps to protect against the damaging effects of the sun while repairing cellular degeneration.
Palmitoyl Oligopeptide – A regenerating peptide consisting of the amino acids Glycine, Glutamine, Proline and Arginine make up this particular form of Oligopeptide. Stimulates collagen production and helps skin cells function properly.
Palmitoyl Tripeptide-3 - TGF-Beta, this ingredient helps to increase collagen production. It stimulation the production of collagen to help address extracellular matrix damage and inhibit inflammation.
Panthenol(D) - Vitamin B-5, improves hydration, reduces itching and inflammation of the skin and accelerates and improves healing.
Papain - Enzyme derived from papayas, digests keratin proteins to help accelerate exfoliation, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, rich in vitamin C, E and beta-carotene.
Pepha® Tight - Is a biotechnologically produced extract from the microalgae combined with a balanced fraction of polysaccharides. It functions as an effective skin tightener providing immediate benefit to the skin.
Phloretin - A powerful anti-oxidant.
Phosphatidycholine(Lecithin) - Liposome coating for delivery and penetration.
Pot Marigold (Calendula Officinalis) - Soothes and calms skin irritation, anti-inflammatory, astringent, anti-fungal, and antiseptic properties, rich in flavonoids and saponins that promote healing and repair.
Potassium Azeloyl Diglycinate - A derivative of Azelaic Acid, offers anti-bacterial and comedolytic benefits. It is a reversible inhibitor of tyrosinase, delivering whitening benefits to the skin.
Proteasyl (Pisum Sativum Pea Extract) - Has the capacity to boost the synthesis of type V collagen offering a high degree of anti-wrinkle efficacy.
Pumpkin (Cucurbita Pepo) - Nourishing phytochemicals, vitamin C and A, antioxidant carotenoids, beta-carotene, stimulates cell turnover.
Purple Coneflower (Echinacea Purpurea) - Improves efficiency of immune cells to fight off infection, stimulates tissue growth for healing, and reduces inflammation.
RenovageTM - Maintains and delays shortening of telomeres. Extends lifespan of skin cells by 30%.
Resveratol (Polygonum Cuspidatum) - Derived from the Giant Knotweed , a polyphenolic antioxidant also commonly found in red grapes and wine, phytoalexin, anti-inflammatory, protects against UVB damage.
Retinol - Form of vitamin A, precursor to retinoic acid, counteracts skin aging and improves the appearance of UV-damaged skin, accelerates mitosis, increases enzyme activity, and normalizes keratinisation.
Retinyl Palmitate (Vitamin A Palmitate) - Precursor to retinol, provides gradual non-irritating skin resurfacing, improves the visible signs of aging by reducing wrinkles and smoothing skin texture, promotes healthy collagen synthesis.
Rice Protein (Oryza Sativa) - Peptide that stimulates the proliferation of fibroblasts, improves cell propagation, elevates cellular metabolism, improves collagen synthesis, reduces sign of wrinkles, and increases smoothness and flexibility.
Rooibos (Aspalathus Linearis) - Rich source of nutrients including powerful antioxidant SOD (superoxide dismutase), helps to slow the process of aging and boosts the immune system.
Rosehip (Rosa Canina) Fruit Extract - High levels of essential fatty acids, natural retinoic acid content to aid in skin rejuvenation, hydrating, moisturizing, nourishing, and protects against photodamage.Rosemary (Rosmarinus Officinalis) - Strengthens and stimulates capillaries for a rejuvenating effect, toning, moisturizing, antioxidant, astringent.
Sage Oil (Salvia Officinalis) - Skin purifier and toning agent, healing, anti-bacterial Sage contains 20 amino acids, increases circulation, purifying, detoxifying, active enzymes smooth skin, moisturizing, soothing.
Salicylic Acid - Beta Hydroxy Acid (BHA), provides exfoliation preventing pore clogging and smoothing fine lines/wrinkles, stimulates new cell growth, reduces inflammation.
SculptessenceTM - Purified polyholosides derived from linseed. It offers skin stability and remodeling benefits.
Sea Buckthorn (Hippophae Rhamnoides) - High content of Omega 7 fatty acid, tocopherols, carotenoids, phytosterols, enhances cell regeneration, promotes healing.
Seasflash - Derived from Sesame, instantly and visibly smoothes skin while tightening and offering long lasting hydrating.
ShadownylTM - Softens and protects skin, preserves lipidic balance. Following 8 weeks of use 81% of the women could see an improvement in the appearance of the skin around their eyes.
Shea Butter (Butyrospermum Parkii) - High content of hydrating and conditioning agents with fatty acid profile, moisturizes and retains elasticity, helps to protect against the damaging effects of the sun while repairing cellular degeneration.
Sodium Ascorbyl Phosphate - Highly effective water soluble antioxidant. Acts as a collagen biosynthesis regulator, helping to trigger collagen production. Also helps to prevent breakdown of cells due to environmental exposure. Anti-inflammatory properties soothe damaged skin.
Sodium Hyaluronate - Able to hold 1,000 times its weight in water it also promotes skin/blood microcirculation and nutrient absorption.
Soy Isoflavones - Phytoestrogen with estrogenic effect and inhibition of kinases, stimulation of collagen and elastin production, inhibition of MMP, promotes increase in skin thickness and elasticity.
Sphingokiner NP (Caprooyl Phytosphingosine) - Reshapes the dermal scaffold, supporting the structure of adipose tissue leading to plumped, densified skin. These effects lead to reduced skin sagging, significantly tighter skin and toned skin tissues.
Sqisandryl - Strengthens dynamic cohesion between the dermis and the epidermis resulting in an increase of the skin’s resilience, elasticity and firmness.
Sugar Cane (Saccharum Officinarum) - Exfoliating and conditioning agent, active ingredient is naturally derived lactic acid for refining wrinkles and other signs of aging skin, moisturizing and lubricating.
Syn-Coll ™ (Palmitoyl Tripeptide-5) - Stimulating collagen synthesis, this complex helps to strengthen skin and reduce the appearance of fine lines and wrinkles. It overrides the effects of Matrix Metalloproteinase (MMP) enzymes that contribute to skin aging.Syniorage - Increases growth of keratinocytes.
Tea Plant (Camellia Sinensis) - Rich in polyphenol catechins, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, UV protection, inhibits collagenase.
Tea Tree Oil (Melaleuca Alternifolia) - Anti-bacterial, antiseptic, heals breakouts, reduces infection, anti-inflammatory.
Tego Cistus (Cistus Incanus Extract) - DNA protection, strong anti-oxidative efficacy, anti-inflammatory effects, delivers daylight defense, and protects from environmental stress.
Tetrahydroxypropyl Ethylenediamine - THPE stimulates the contraction of keratinocytes cells which constitute 80% of the epidermis and which renews and maintains the skin barrier.
Tocopheryl Acetate - Naturally occurring fat soluble form of Vitamin E, antioxidant protects from oxidative stress and is anti-inflammatory.
Tomato Extract (Solanum Lycopersicum) - Natural source of lycopene, carotenoid, antioxidant efficient at protecting against free radical damage. Tomato Extract helpsbalance the pH of the skin and regulate sebum.
Ubiquinone - Coenzyme Q10, present in every cell of the body, important part of mitochondrial health and cellular respiration, production of cellular energy (ATP) and detoxification of waste, powerful anti-oxidant.
Ultra Filling Spheres (Hyaluronic Acid & Konjac Root Extract) - Is based on the ability of cross-linked and dehydrated spheres to penetrate the upper layers of the epidermis and to absorb the water that evaporates from the deep dermis.
Unisooth EG-28 - Inhibits NF-kB activated signaling pathway in keratinocytes. The communication between the keratinocyte and the immune cell is interrupted with the result of inhibiting skin irritation, to provide an immediate soothing effect.
Vitamin A - Helps soften and soothe the skin and boost collagen production to prevent the signs of aging.
Vitamin E (D-Alpha Tocopherol or Mixed Tocopherol) - Very healing for the skin, easily absorbed and smoothing, containing antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties.VoluformTM - “Volufirming” technology targets cells that guarantee volume and firmness. Uses proteasome to stimulate cell detoxification. Facial volume is redefined and elasticity is increased after 2 months of treatment. Deep and moderate wrinkles are filled, after 1 1/2 months of treatment.
White Meadowfoam (Limnanthes Alba) - Moisturizing, adheres to stay on the skin, superior stability prolongs shelf life, forms a barrier on the skin to prevent moisture loss.
White Tea (Camellia Sinensis) - Boosts the immune function of skin cells, protects against the sun damage, protects the skin from oxidative stress and immune cell.
Wild Cherry Bark Extract (Prunus Serotina) - Anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and soothing properties.
Wild Pansy (Viola Tricolour) - Viola tricolor is a soothing, bitter-sweet herb that possesses purifying actions. It contains rutin, a chemical known for its restorative actions on capillary membranes.
Yeast Extract (Saccharomyces Cerevisiae) - A mixture of flavonoids, sugars, vitamins, and amino acids.